Paediatric TB

  • The performance of CAD4TB v7 to identify TB in children (<13 years) significantly improved after fine-tuning it with a set of well-characterised paediatric chest x-rays. CAD has the potential to be useful additional diagnostic tool for paediatric tuberculosis. [South Africa: Palmer et al., PLOS Glob Public Health, 2023]
  • CAD may provide viable options for use in TB screening programs to increase TB detection, especially in low resource areas where there may be no available expert radiologists. [Gelaw et al., Plos Global Public Health, 2023]

Prison Screening

  • Screening by mobile x-ray systems with automated interpretation could reduce the number of confirmatory tests required and enable screening to be more rapid in high burden TB settings, while still maintaining sufficient sensitivity. [Soares et al., The Lancet Regional Health – Americas, 2023]
  • Inclusion of digital CXR to systematic TB screening detected additional TB cases among inmates that would otherwise have been missed, and using CAD4TB may also improve performance of screening algorithm. [Kim et al., IJTLD, 2020]
  • High uptake of new screening tools such as digital X-ray with CAD4TB may be particularly feasible, reliable, and highly acceptable in prison settings. [Wali et al., BMC Public Health, 2019]
  • CAD4TB reliably evaluates CXRs from a mostly asymptomatic prison population, with a performance comparable to local readers in Tanzania. [Steiner et al., Public Health Action, 2015]

Non-TB Abnormalities

  • CAD4TB has the potential to simultaneously provide information on other non-TB abnormalities that might be of clinical relevance in communities alongside TB. CAD can be useful for LMICs where there is no routine screening for non-TB abnormalities, and there is often a shortage of qualified radiologists. [Zambia, South Africa: Ngosa, D. et al. (2023). BMC Infect Dis, 2023]


Non-TB Abnormalities

  • COVID-19 screening in low resource settings using artificial intelligence for chest radiographs and point-of-care blood tests (Nature Scientific Reports, 2023)
  • Assessment of non-tuberculosis abnormalities on digital chest x-rays with high CAD4TB scores form a tuberculosis prevalence survey in Zambia and South Africa (BMC Infectious Diseases, 2023)

CAD for TB Screening: Policies and Guidelines